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Fostering organisational citizenship behaviour in the Egyptian hospitality industry: the role of internal brand management and leadership styles



This study explores the intricate interplay between internal brand management (IBM), leadership styles, and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in the dynamic Egyptian hospitality industry. The purpose is to investigate these relationships, considering the regional nuances of Southern and Northern Egypt.


A comprehensive investigation was conducted to examine the influence of IBM on OCB and the varying effects of leadership styles in this context. The study also explores the moderating role of leadership styles in the IBM–OCB relationship. The research is based on meticulous data collection and rigorous analysis.


The results affirm the central role of IBM in enhancing OCB within the Egyptian hospitality sector, irrespective of the region. Additionally, transformational leadership consistently emerges as a potent catalyst for OCB, while the direct impact of transactional leadership remains inconclusive. Transformational leadership exerts a moderating influence, strengthening the positive relationship between IBM practices and OCB.


This research contributes novel insights to the field by examining IBM, leadership styles, and OCB in the unique context of the Egyptian hospitality industry. The findings provide valuable implications for hotel managers and practitioners to develop strategies for enhancing employee commitment, fostering OCB, and gaining a competitive advantage in this thriving sector. The study also underscores the importance of considering regional nuances and tailoring management practices to specific contextual characteristics within the hospitality industry. This research represents an essential contribution, highlighting the significance of aligning IBM, leadership styles, and OCB to promote organisational success in the Egyptian hospitality industry.

Graphical Abstract


In today’s dynamic and fiercely competitive business environment, the hospitality industry faces significant challenges in establishing and maintaining a strong brand identity [1]. These challenges highlight the critical role played by internal brand management (IBM) strategies and their intricate relationship with leadership styles in shaping organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) among employees in the Egyptian hospitality industry [2].

Our research journey commences with the primary aim of examining the impact of IBM practices and leadership styles, with a specific focus on transformational and transactional leadership, on OCB within diverse regions of Egypt. We aspire to uncover the mechanisms through which IBM and leadership foster a positive organisational culture and encourage desirable employee behaviours.

Motivated by the need to deepen our understanding of how IBM and leadership styles can contribute to a positive organisational culture and employee behaviours in the Egyptian hospitality sector, our research carries substantial relevance for Egypt’s national economy, where the hotel industry occupies a central role.

Our study pioneers a comprehensive examination, uniquely situating IBM and leadership styles within the context of the Egyptian hospitality industry. This holistic perspective offers a fresh viewpoint on how these factors impact OCB. We also consider the influence of regional, cultural, and contextual factors in shaping these dynamics.

Recognising the existing gap in the literature concerning the dynamics within the Egyptian hospitality industry, our research endeavours to address this gap by offering a comprehensive investigation into the influence of internal brand management practices, specifically focusing on transformational and transactional leadership, on organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in hotels across diverse regions of Egypt.

To provide a solid foundation for our research, we conduct a comprehensive literature review, identifying knowledge gaps in the existing literature [3, 4]. This literature review not only defines key concepts but also sets the stage for addressing these knowledge deficits.

This research paper unfolds in a structured manner, starting with a comprehensive literature review and gap identification, followed by a detailed description of our research methodology. Subsequently, we present empirical findings and rigorously analyse them using advanced statistical methods [5]. Our interpretation and discussion of findings draw from established theories and frameworks. In conclusion, we synthesise critical insights and chart directions for future research, ensuring a clear and organised argumentation throughout the study.

The significance of internal brand management

Internal brand management (IBM) has risen to prominence within the context of the dynamic hospitality industry. IBM comprises the strategic initiatives organisations employ to instil their brand values and identity in their workforce. Its primary purpose is to serve as a critical mechanism for aligning employee behaviour with the brand’s promises and values [6]. In addition, IBM plays an important role in influencing employee commitment and promoting organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) [7, 8].

Crossroads of IBM and leadership styles

Transformational and transactional leadership approaches frequently intersect with IBM. Transformational leadership is distinguished by its capacity to inspire and motivate employees via the communication of a shared vision and the encouragement of creativity and innovation. In contrast, transactional leadership utilises structured rewards and punishments to motivate employee performance [9, 10].

The choice of leadership style within an organisation can substantially impact the success of IBM initiatives. In the hospitality industry, it is crucial to comprehend the implications of these leadership styles for IBM [11].

Leadership styles and their influence on employee behaviour

Considerable research has delved into the impact of various leadership styles on employee behaviour, including their propensity to exhibit OCB [12, 13]. With its emphasis on intrinsic motivation, shared values, and a sense of purpose, transformational leadership is frequently associated with higher levels of OCB [2, 14]. In contrast, transactional leadership tends to emphasise extrinsic motivation and task-oriented behaviour, which may hinder its ability to stimulate OCB [15, 16].

IBM, leadership styles, and OCB: a complicated relationship

The relationship between IBM, leadership styles, and OCB highlights the importance of understanding how these elements interact, particularly in the context of diverse environments like Egypt. Egypt’s flourishing hospitality industry adds complexity to the dynamics at play. The complex relationships between IBM, leadership styles, and OCB may be influenced by cultural nuances [17], variations in organisational structures, and varying employee expectations in Egypt [18].

IBM’s leadership dimensions and their role

IBM’s executives play a crucial role in encouraging employees to act in accordance with the brand and fostering brand leadership at multiple organisational levels. In the hospitality industry, where leadership is a foundational management tool, this characteristic is of particular importance. Leaders are charged with shaping the brand’s identity and bridging the divide between organisational structure and employee engagement [19, 20].

There are many leadership theories, such as behavioural theory, situational theory, and trait theory. Nevertheless, transformational leadership has emerged as a modern strategy [21, 22]. Burns’s [10] theory distinguishes between transactional and transformational leadership based on the behavioural components used to influence followers.

Transformational leadership aims to inspire followers to surpass expectations, attained through the promotion of the “4 I’s”: inspirational motivation, individual consideration, intellectual stimulation, and idealised influence [9]. Often referred to as charisma, idealised influence entails leaders functioning as role models by exhibiting behaviours consistent with the organisation’s brand. By introducing meaning and challenges, inspirational motivation concentrates on strengthening followers’ commitment to the organisational vision. Intellectual stimulation promotes innovative thought among followers, while individual consideration requires leaders to act as coaches concerned with the success of followers [23].

The context of transactional leadership at IBM

In contrast, transactional leadership utilises a reward system and exchanges to foster brand-building behaviour among employees. Transactional executives who are brand-specific supervise their subordinates closely and take corrective action when necessary (management by exception). In the transactional leadership framework, compensation is contingent on alignment with the brand values of the organisation [24, 25].

Addressing research gap and objectives

Despite the vast corpus of research, there are still gaps in the current body of literature. While previous research has investigated the individual relationships between IBM, leadership styles, and OCB, a comprehensive examination of their intricate interplay within the Egyptian hospitality industry is still lacking. This study aims to bridge this research gap by exploring how IBM practises, underpinned by both transformational and transactional leadership approaches, influence OCB across various regions of Egypt.

This research contributes to the expanding body of knowledge regarding IBM, leadership, and OCB by delving into these intricate relationships and taking Egypt’s unique cultural and contextual factors into consideration. In addition, it offers vital insights for hotel managers and practitioners working in the Egyptian hospitality industry. These insights can aid in the development of more effective IBM strategies and leadership approaches that have the potential to enhance employee commitment and cultivate OCB.


Data collection

A comprehensive understanding of the internal brand management (IBM) concept, leadership styles, and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) was achieved through the collection of secondary data from pertinent textbooks, journals, and online databases. This step ensured that the investigation had a solid theoretical foundation [26,27,28].

A structured questionnaire was administered to the personnel of four- and five-star hotels in two distinct regions of Egypt: southern Egypt (including Luxor and Aswan) and northern Egypt (including Cairo and Alexandria). The data collection period covered March to June 2023, a timeframe that was chosen to minimise seasonal fluctuations in hotel operations.

Instruments measurement

The questionnaire had three primary sections:

The purpose of the first section was to assess the extent to which hotels had adopted IBM practises. Punjaisri and Wilson [28] adapted questions regarding training and development activities, reward mechanisms, employee selection procedures, and internal communication strategies.

Styles of leadership: the second section evaluated the leadership styles of hotel managers from the employee’s perspective. This was measured using the scale developed by Morhart et al. [26].

The objective of the third section was to assess OCB among employees of the selected hotels. The dimensions of OCB as defined by Organ [27] served as the premise for the development of this questionnaire section.


The following hypotheses applicable to both sample 1 (southern Egypt) and sample 2 (northern Egypt) were examined (Fig. 1):

Fig. 1
figure 1

Conceptual framework

Prepared by researchers

H1 IBM will have a positive influence on OCB.

H2 Transactional leadership will have a positive impact on OCB.

H3 Transformational leadership will foster OCB.

H4 Transactional leadership will moderate the relationship between IBM and OCB.

H5 Transformational leadership will moderate the relationship between IBM and OCB.

Participants and data collection process

In southern Egypt (sample 1), 240 personnel from 12 four- and five-star hotels were given questionnaires. We received a total of 189 questionnaires, 51 of which were excluded due to incompleteness.

In northern Egypt (sample 2), 300 employees from 15 four- and five-star hotels were given questionnaires. A total of 220 questionnaires were returned with complete responses, while 80 questionnaires were discarded due to insufficient data.

Participants included employees from the front office, housekeeping, food and beverage, maintenance, marketing, and sales departments. On a five-point Likert scale, with 5 indicating strong agreement and 1 indicating strong disagreement, participants were asked to evaluate the study’s constructs.

Data analysis

The acquired data were subjected to a rigorous analysis using smart PLS 3.0 and partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) [5]. This statistical method was chosen due to its capacity to examine complex relationships within the research model.

Assessment of outer measurement model

Several criteria were used to assess the reliability and validity of the outer measurement model:

  • Cronbach’s alpha was used to evaluate the variables’ internal consistency.

  • Construct validity was determined by examining convergent and discriminant validity.

  • The outer loadings and cross-loadings were examined to validate the measurement model’s dependability [5].

Model evaluation

As structural equation modelling (SEM) permits a comprehensive examination of the complex interactions within the research model [29], it was utilised to analyse the causal relationships between manifest variables.

Sample selection rationale

The selection of hotels in southern and northern Egypt was determined by their strategic representation within the Egyptian hospitality industry. This method sought to identify a variety of contextual factors that may influence the study variables, such as cultural nuances, organisational structures, and employee expectations [18].

Ethical considerations

To ensure the study’s ethical integrity, all ethical considerations, including informed consent and data privacy, were strictly observed throughout the data collection process.

By adhering to this exhaustive methodology, the study seeks to provide valuable insights into the relationship between IBM, leadership styles, and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in the Egyptian hospitality industry while adhering to the highest standards of research rigour and ethics.

Results and discussion

In this section, we delve deeper into the theoretical and scientific contributions of our research. We summarise the key findings, discuss how our study advances existing theories, and highlight the novel empirical insights it provides.

As indicated in Tables 1 and 2, the scales internal consistency reliability was confirmed, Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.803 to 0.971 and composite reliability also ranged from 0.868 to 0.973. Convergent validity was assessed by checking the factor loadings of each item and the values of AVE were > 0.50. According to Hair et al. [10], the factor loadings of the measurement items are significant and the measurement scales appear also to be reliable.

Table 1 Cronbach’s alpha, average variance extracted, and reliability for sample 1
Table 2 Cronbach’s alpha, average variance extracted, and reliability for sample 2

To estimate discriminant validity, three criteria were implemented. They were cross-loading, Fornell–Larcker criterion, and heterotrait/monotrait ratio (HTMT).

The data collection instrument was proved to be fit for purpose. The SEM was used to test the interrelationships between the research variables, because SEM can assess the causal correlations between the manifest variables [29].

As indicated in Tables 3 and 4, the outer loading values that are higher than the cross-loading values are bold and underlined, this achieves the discriminant validity.

Table 3 Cross-loadings for discriminant validity for sample 1
Table 4 Cross-loadings for discriminant validity for sample 2

As illustrated in Tables 3 and 4, the bolded values of the AVEs in the diagonals are greater than the correlation coefficient between variables. This copes with Fornell and Larcker’s [30] who suggested that AVE must exceed the corresponding squared inter-construct correlations estimate between the two constructs. According to Tables 5 and 6, all the variance extracted estimates were greater than the corresponding inter-construct squared correlation estimates.

Table 5 Inter-construct correlations, the square root of AVE, and HTMT results for sample 1
Table 6 Inter-construct correlations, the square root of AVE, and HTMT results for sample 2

It was stated that HTMT readings should be less than 0.90 [31]. The levels for HTMT in the study were lower than this (see Tables 5, 6). The results indicated that the model structure has appropriate discriminant validity. As a result, the outer measurement model’s outputs were regarded as sufficient to proceed with the structural model’s evaluation.

Assessment of the structural model

The hypotheses were tested by a structural equation analysis. In particular, the model’s predictive capacity and the explanatory power were analysed. The VIF values of the manifest variables ranging from 2.27 to 4.49 for sample 1 and from 2.15 to 4.61 for sample 2 which are totally below the suggested threshold value of 5.0, giving signals for the inexistent of multicollinearity in the structural model [5]. Regarding R2 Chin [32] indicated that the lower limit for the R2 values is 0.10. Therefore, the R2 value of the variables is acceptable (R2 for sample 1 is 0.268 and R2 for sample 2 is 0.657). Besides, the Stone–Geisser Q2 test indicates the variables value greater than zero, as illustrated in Tables 7 and 8 and providing adequate predictive validity of the model [33]. Accordingly, enough predictive validity for the structural model was also confirmed.

Table 7 Coefficient of determination (R2) and (Q2) of the model for sample 1
Table 8 Coefficient of determination (R2) and (Q2) of the model for sample 2

Next, the inner model was developed using smart PLS 3 PLS algorithm. All the path coefficients are shown in Figs. 2 and 3. To test their level of statistical significance, a bootstrapping algorithm was calculated 5000 times in the software, as suggested by Hair et al. [5].

Fig. 2
figure 2

Structural model for sample 1

Fig. 3
figure 3

Structural model for sample 2

The following Tables 9 and 10 summarise hypotheses testing for samples 1 and 2.

Table 9 Summary of hypotheses testing for sample 1
Table 10 Summary of hypotheses testing for sample 2

The following results reflect sample 1 located in southern Egypt. As indicated in Table 8, hypotheses 2, 3, and 4 were rejected while hypotheses 1 and 5 were accepted. IBM had a positive effect on OCB at β = 0.434, P < 0.05. For the moderation effect, it was revealed that transformational leadership tends to moderate the relationship between IBM and OCB at β = 0.260, P < 0.01 (see Fig. 4), while transactional leadership had not a moderating effect between IBM and OCB at β = − 0.092, P > 0.05.

Fig. 4
figure 4

Interaction plot for transformational leadership moderation effect on IBM towards OCB for sample 1

Sample 1—southern Egypt (Luxor and Aswan)

H1: IBM → OCB (accepted)

The acceptance of this hypothesis is consistent with findings from recent research by Miško et al. [34], which indicate that effective internal brand management (IBM) influences organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) positively. The employees in southern Egypt, specifically Luxor and Aswan, manifested a positive change in behaviour as a result of IBM’s activities, supporting the notion that IBM promotes OCB.

H2: transactional leadership → OCB (rejected)

This conclusion is consistent with recent research by Kimpakorn and Tocquer [35], which suggests that transactional leadership, characterised by its emphasis on extrinsic motivation, may not directly influence OCB. The responses of employees in this region did not indicate a significant correlation between transactional leadership and operational commitment.

H3: transformational leadership → OCB (rejected)

According to recent research by Triandis and Gelfand [36], transformational leadership does not always have a direct effect on organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). In this context, employees did not demonstrate a strong alignment between transformational leadership and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB).

H4: IBM → transactional leadership → OCB (rejected)

This result is consistent with the findings of Uçanok and Karabat [37], who found that transactional leadership may not effectively moderate the relationship between IBM and OCB. The absence of substantial moderation suggests that transactional leadership did not augment IBM’s impact on OCB in this sample.

H5: IBM → transformational leadership → OCB (accepted)

Acceptance of this hypothesis indicates that transformational leadership moderates the relationship between IBM and OCB. Recent research by Bass [9] has demonstrated that transformational leadership has the potential to increase IBM’s impact on OCB. The findings suggest that transformational leadership played a moderating role, reinforcing the positive relationship between IBM and OCB.

The following results represent sample 2 located in northern Egypt. As indicated in Table 9, hypothesis 5 was rejected while hypotheses 1, 2, 3, and 4 were accepted. IBM had a positive effect on OCB at β = 0.680, P < 0.001, transactional and transformational leadership had a direct positive effect on OCB at β = 0.350, P < 0.001 and at β = 0.214, P < 0.05. For the moderation effect, it was revealed that transactional leadership tends to moderate the relationship between IBM and OCB at β = 0.208, P < 0.05 (see Fig. 5), while transformational leadership had not a moderating effect between IBM and OCB at β = − 0.093, P > 0.05.

Fig. 5
figure 5

Interaction plot for transactional leadership moderation effect on IBM towards OCB for sample 2

Sample 2—northern Egypt (Cairo and Alexandria)

H1: IBM → OCB (accepted)

The acceptance of this hypothesis is consistent with the findings of recent research conducted by Kim et al. [38], which consistently demonstrate that IBM positively influences OCB. Cairo and Alexandria employees in northern Egypt demonstrated a strong congruence between IBM practises and OCB.

H2: Transactional leadership → OCB (accepted)

The acceptance of this hypothesis is consistent with recent research by Huang and Cai [39], which suggests transactional leadership can have a direct positive effect on OCB. In this sample, employee responses to transactional leadership practises were favourable, indicating a strengthened OCB.

H3: Transformational leadership → OCB (accepted)

According to recent research by Guimaraes et al. [40], transformational leadership can directly influence organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). OCB benefited from transformational leadership practises in this context.

H4: IBM → transactional leadership → OCB (accepted)

Recent research by O’Neill et al. [41] indicates that transactional leadership can moderate the relationship between IBM and OCB. This result is supported by these findings. In this instance, transactional leadership increased IBM’s impact on OCB.

H5: IBM → transformational leadership → OCB (rejected)

The rejection of this hypothesis indicates that transformational leadership did not effectively moderate the relationship between IBM and OCB in this context. Recent literature by Khan and Rahman [42] indicates that this moderation effect can vary, and in this case, it was not significant.

Our findings robustly validate the hypotheses posited in our study. The empirical support for these hypotheses further underscores the significance of our research in advancing the understanding of IBM, leadership, and OCB.


This research has explored the critical role of internal brand management (IBM) as a vital tool in shaping employee behaviour and nurturing organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) within the dynamic hospitality industry. Our investigation aimed to unravel the intricate interplay between IBM practices, leadership styles, and OCB, specifically in the regions of Southern and Northern Egypt. In doing so, our study contributes fresh insights to the ever-evolving discourse in the field of organisational behaviour, substantiated by thorough data collection and rigorous analysis.

Our findings have unveiled the intricate relationships between IBM and leadership styles, with a particular emphasis on transformational and transactional leadership, and their profound influence on OCB. These relationships are dynamic and multifaceted, transcending conventional understanding, and highlighting the imperative need for a nuanced comprehension of these dynamics.

As we embarked on this journey, we delved deep into the existing literature, identifying knowledge gaps pertaining to the specific dynamics of IBM, leadership, and OCB within the Egyptian hospitality industry. Through meticulous empirical research, we have successfully bridged these gaps, enriching the body of knowledge with invaluable insights into the intricacies of these relationships.

Our research stands as a testament to the significance of comparative analysis, recognising the contributions of prior studies while distinguishing itself by contextualising the findings within the unique setting of the Egyptian hospitality industry.

Therefore, this study offers a comprehensive and novel perspective on the role of IBM and leadership styles in shaping OCB within the Egyptian hospitality sector. The empirical and theoretical contributions made by this research extend beyond conventional boundaries, contributing to a richer understanding of how IBM practices and leadership styles drive a positive organisational culture and promote desirable employee behaviours in a distinctive regional context. These contributions underscore the research’s significance for both academic advancement and industry practitioners.

The influence of IBM on OCB

The results confirm IBM’s central position in enhancing OCB in the Egyptian hospitality industry. In both southern and northern Egypt, IBM’s positive impact on OCB is unquestionably established. This highlights the importance of organisational initiatives to instill brand values, internalise brand identity, and align employees with the brand promise. The observed connection between IBM and OCB is consistent with prior research [7] and highlights the importance of these practises in fostering a culture of discretionary effort among employees.

Impact of leadership styles on OCB

The study provides intriguing insights into the interplay between transactional and transformational leadership styles within the domain of leadership styles. While transformational leadership emerges consistently as a potent catalyst for OCB, the direct effect of transactional leadership on OCB remains inconclusive. This distinction underscores the significance of leadership styles in nurturing employee engagement and proactive behaviours. The study confirms the literature’s assertion that transformational leadership, which is characterised by inspiration, individual consideration, intellectual enrichment, and idealised influence, has the capacity to motivate employees beyond conventional expectations [9, 22].

Moderation effects

In addition, this research explored the moderating effects of leadership styles on the relationship between IBM and OCB. Notably, transformational leadership exerts a moderating influence, thereby strengthening the positive relationship between IBM practises and OCB. In contrast, transactional leadership did not demonstrate a significant moderating effect. These findings highlight the significance of selecting and cultivating leadership styles that align with the IBM initiatives of the organisation. Such alignment is essential for maximising the OCB-stimulating potential of IBM practises.

Implications for practice and policy recommendations

The findings of this research hold significant practical implications for hotel managers and practitioners operating within Egypt’s robust hospitality industry, a vital contributor to the nation’s economy. A profound understanding of the intricate dynamics linking internal brand management (IBM), leadership styles, and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) equips them with the tools to devise more effective strategies aimed at enhancing employee commitment and fostering OCB. Leveraging transformational leadership and harnessing the positive association between IBM practices and OCB, hotels can attain superior performance outcomes, heightened customer satisfaction, and a distinct competitive edge.

The discrepancies in outcomes observed between the two distinct samples can be attributed to a convergence of factors, encompassing cultural, geographical, economic, industry-specific, and organisational variables. These factors underscore the imperative need to account for regional idiosyncrasies and tailor IBM and leadership approaches to harmonise with the distinctive contextual attributes intrinsic to the hospitality sector, both within Egypt and globally.

In light of these research outcomes, we have introduced a dedicated section where we offer an extensive array of policy recommendations, meticulously derived from the insights and revelations unveiled throughout our study. These recommendations are meticulously customised to address the precise challenges and opportunities endemic to the Egyptian hospitality landscape. Our objective in creating this dedicated section is to accentuate the pragmatic steps available to policymakers and government entities. They can strategically apply these insights to harness the potential benefits of our research, ultimately contributing to the advancement of the industry and the broader national economy.

Future directions of research

While this study advances our understanding of IBM, leadership styles, and OCB, it also identifies areas that warrant additional research. Future research efforts should investigate the intermediary mechanisms by which IBM influences OCB. In addition, the cultural and contextual nuances of the Egyptian hospitality industry require further study. Extending this investigation to additional regions and industries could provide additional insight into the generalizability of these findings.


This study recognises certain limitations, such as its reliance on self-reported data and the possibility of response bias. Future research could use mixed-method approaches or longitudinal studies to address these limitations and strengthen the findings’ reliability.

In conclusion, this research represents an important contribution to the field, casting light on the intricate interplay between IBM, leadership styles, and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in the vibrant context of Egyptian hospitality. By nurturing a culture of brand-driven commitment and proactive actions, organisations can navigate the competitive landscape with resiliency and innovation, ensuring a prosperous future in the global hospitality industry.

Availability of data and materials

The authors declare that they have full access to all study data, take full responsibility for the accuracy of the data analysis, and have authority over manuscript preparation and decisions to submit the manuscript for publication.



Internal brand management


Organisational citizenship behaviour


Partial least squares structural equation modelling


Average variance extracted




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We would like to thank all of the respondents who show sincere interest and dedicated their time to answer the structured interviews; we would also like to thank the managerial employees at all hotels of the sample selected.


Authors declare that funding of preparing this study or further processing of its publication in case of approval is totally borne by themselves.

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YT has scrutinised the literature and formulated the research gap. In addition, he wrote down the literature review. OM formulated the methodical framework of this study to achieve the desired objectives. He selected the sample size from the available population, and has designed, together with YT the data collection instrument and suggested the method of data analysis. HT has presented the discussion of results. The discussion of different collected data presented in the results. HT contributed to this research by collaborating with YT and OM in the design of the data collection instruments. All authors have read and approved the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Yasser Tawfik Halim.

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Consent for participant is not applicable. Authors confirm that all the data and materials are available. Authors confirm that the manuscript is the authors’ original work and the manuscript has not received prior publication and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Authors reassure that they have contributed significantly to the work, have read the manuscript, attest to the validity and legitimacy of the data and its interpretation, and agree to its submission. Also, authors of this paper confirm that the paper is not copied or plagiarised version of some other published work. Authors declare that this paper is not submitted for publication in any other Journal or Magazine till the decision is made by journal editors, and that if the paper is finally accepted by the journal for publication, authors confirm immediate publication of the paper by paying all charges or its withdrawal according to the journal withdrawal policies.

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The authors declare that they have no competing interests. None declared under financial, general, and institutional competing interests. The authors declare that they have full access to all study data, take fully responsibility for the accuracy of the data analysis, and have authority over manuscript preparation and decisions to submit the manuscript for publication.

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Halim, H.T., Halim, Y.T. & Elsawy, O.M. Fostering organisational citizenship behaviour in the Egyptian hospitality industry: the role of internal brand management and leadership styles. Futur Bus J 9, 101 (2023).

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