Narcissism personality disorder
In the research work of Grijalva and Harms , narcissism significantly correlates with counterproductive work behavior and leadership effectiveness. They propose dominance complementarily model to examine the narcissistic leader’s interaction with their followers. This study proposes four management areas: corporate social responsibility, entrepreneurship, negotiation, and international management that may gain benefits from included narcissism in organizational operations. In another study of Grijalva and Newman  depicted that counterproductive work behavior was predicted by narcissism after controlling the effect of big five personality traits and collectivist culture. They propose two new moderators narcissism facets (Entitlement) positively linked with counterproductive work behavior and authority negatively correlate with counterproductive work behavior.
The widely used term to measure narcissism is Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI). In the study of Ackerman et al. , NPI was measured from triangle factors; grandiose exhibitionism, entitlement and authority and NPI was divided into adaptive or normal narcissism and maladaptive narcissism. The adaptive or normal narcissism aspects are extraversion, self-esteem, goal persistence and social potency. The maladaptive has further divided into grandiose exhibitionism and entitlement. Forsyth et al.  conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the tri-dark personality traits; narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy on job performance and counterproductive work behavior. The outcomes confirmed that tri-dark traits significantly associated with increase counterproductive work behavior, and job performance become low in the presence of Machiavellianism and psychopathy factors. These associations were moderately affected by authority and cultures. Carlson and Gjerde  conducted a longitudinal study to examine the association between pre-school personality antecedents of narcissism during emergent adulthood and adolescence. The results illustrated that from age 14–18, narcissism increase significantly and slightly declined from 18 to 23 years of age. Erkutlu and Chafra  examined the impact of leader narcissism on subordinate embeddedness with moderating role of behavioral integrity and moral attentiveness. The empirical results confirmed that leader’s narcissism negatively linked with subordinate embeddedness. Furthermore, such association was weaker when behavioral integrity and moral attentiveness were high and vice versa. In another study, Erkutlu and Chafra  examine the moderating role of narcissistic personality in measuring the association between leaders behavioral and workplace ostracism.
The extremely negative behavior and attitudes articulated by so many personnel toward their institution is still debating topic in the eyes of many researchers. The concept of cynicism was originated in ancient Greece. Dean et al.  analysis the available literature on cynicism and conceptualization new, multidimensional and comprehensive definition of organization cynicism as follows’
Organizational cynicism is a negative attitude toward one’s employing organization, comprising three dimensions: (1) a belief that the organization lacks integrity; (2) negative affect toward the organization; and (3) tendencies to disparaging and critical behaviors toward the organization that are consistent with these beliefs and affect.
Munir et al.  study the mediating role of organizational cynicism in determining the association between horizontal violence and turnover intention of nurses working in public hospital in Punjab, Pakistan. The statistical results indicated that the direct effect of horizontal violence on turnover intention was significant but with mediating role of organizational cynicism was insignificant and organizational cynicism has not mediating role in determining the association between horizontal violence and turnover intention in nursing profession. Polatcan and Titrek  examined the association of school principal leadership behavior (indulgence and construction) on teachers attitudes toward different level of organizational cynicism (cognitive, behavioral, and emotional). The outcomes illustrated that there was significant negative association between school principal leadership behavior and teachers attitudes toward different level of organization cynicism. The medium negative level of correlation found between indulgence and construction dimensions of leadership and organizational cynicism level with ordering from highest to lowest was; cognitive, behavioral and emotional.
Aslam et al.  explored the causes of organizational cynicism against change initiative in Pakistan. The dimension of organizational cynicism with change were behavioral resistance, cognitive resistance, and dispositional resistance. The study concluded that to implement change effectively and efficiently, cynicism factors must be removed at organizational and management level. The effective participation of employees in decision making process, positive information relating to employee job security, wage rewards, and promotional criteria can effectively reduce the cynicism in the organization. Kaygin et al.  determined the association between organizational cynicism (cognitive, affective and behavioral) and organization commitment (organizational, emotional, continuance and normative). The results illustrated that significant and positive association found between organization cynicism and organizational commitments at medium level. The association between sub-dimensions of organization cynicism and commitments was significant at low level.
The concepts, components and effect of psychological capital in management sciences was well explained in the article of Cavus and Gokcen . The psychological capital has four constructs; confidence/self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resiliency. Furthermore, psychological capital briefly touches the different areas of individual behaviors like job satisfaction, performance and motivation. In the work of Batool  examining the effect of different dimensions of psychological capital on employee engagement. Psychological capital has four positive dimensions: hope, optimism, resiliency, and self-efficacy.
Cross-sectional study of Shang Guan et al.  examined the mediating role of psychological capital in determining the association between occupational stress and job satisfaction in China. The statistical results confirmed that psychological capital was partially mediating between the association of occupational stress and job satisfaction. The direct association between occupational stress and job satisfaction was significantly negative, whereas psychological capital positively correlate with job satisfaction. Lorenz et al.  developed a new measure of psychological capital: Compound PsyCap Scale (CPC-12). They measure positive and negative psychological capital with other constructs like job satisfaction, satisfaction with life, subjective well-being, perceived social support, meaning of work, engagement, gratitude and personality. The outcomes confirmed that proposed measure CPC-12 was statistically well with all four sub-scales of psychological capital.
Mohagheghi et al.  studied the association between job demands and job burnout with mediating role of job resources and psychological capital in Iran. The results confirmed that job demand was the important predictor of job burnout and mediating role of psychological capital and job resources were significant and consistent with past research work. Turgut and Agun  analysis the mediating role of psychological capital and employee voice in determining the relationship between organizational justice and organizational cynicism. The results depicted that negative association exist between organizational justice and organizational cynicism. But mediating role of psychological capital and employee voice was not found through regression analysis. Furthermore, regression analysis indicated that only procedural justice (organizational justice) dimension significantly impact on four sub-dimensions of psychological capital. Yim et al.  explored the association between occupational stress and turnover intention among nurses with mediating role of psychological capital. The results depicted that significant correlation exists among all study variables. The role psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and turnover intention was partial mediating.
Relationship between narcissism personality disorder and organizational cynicism
The available literature evident the importance of narcissism personality disorder in relation to workplace outcomes generally and cynicism and leadership particularly. Substantial evidence shows in the study of Erkutlu and Chafra  examine the impact of leader’s narcissism on organizational cynicism with mediating role of psychological capital and moderating role of psychological strain in healthcare sector of Turkey. The results depicted that positive association exist between leader’s narcissism and cynicism and psychological strain. Furthermore, psychological capital efficiently mediated the positive association between psychological strain and organization cynicism, and in another research study of Bell  “Cynicism and narcissism: making the good life”. This study distinguished the different types of narcissism and measured cynicism both at local and global level. This study marked both cynicism and narcissism was marked by interpersonal difficulties and may inhibit gratitude.
Forsyth et al.  grouped narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism as dark triad and significantly impact on job performance and counterproductive work behavior. This association were moderated by authority and culture. In all three dark triad, the strongest individual triad was narcissism. The strength of association between narcissism and counterproductive work behavior was not buffered in the presence of authority construct, but such relationship became weaker when culture construct became increased. From the comparative study of Malik and Khan , it is evident that narcissistic leader’s behavior present in public and private organizations in Pakistan. The boss narcissistic behavior was categorized into self-absorbed, paranoia, self-promoting, and intellectual inhibition and secretive and vague. The empirical results described that when boss’s narcissism behavior at workplace increase then lack of subordinates/employees commitment, lack of motivation, deterioration of employees behavior and attitude and lack of ownership were also amplify.
In the thematic analysis by Braun , study of the leader narcissism and their outcomes at three different but inter-related levels: leader–follower dyads, organizations, and teams is done. The outcomes suggested that at leader–follower dyads level, leader’s narcissism positive impact on follower’s career and negative effect on follower’s emotions, citizenship and counter productivity. Furthermore, narcissism defines leader’s attitudes (humility) and followers responses (enactment). In teams setting, narcissist persons were not as bad leaders, but perceptions may be deteriorating over time. Moreover, the association between performance and leaders narcissism became negative, but in certain conditions, leader’s narcissism can fuel individual performance. At organization level, narcissistic CEOs were stronger in-group orientation but lack of clear objectives and goals. Furthermore, CEO’s narcissism will reshape the personnel decisions with lower restrictions.
Aslam et al.  examined the impact of organizational cynicism on personality traits, job outcomes and organizational contextual factors. The subscale of organizational cynicism was behavioral resistance, cognitive resistance, and dispositional resistance. Behavioral resistance dimension moderates the relationship among employee intention, organizational contextual factors, and dispositional resistance. Cognitive resistance has no association with information to change, continuance commitment and trust in management. In another study, Polatcan and Titrek  significantly examined the association between school principals leadership behavior and organizational cynicism attitudes of employees. The association between leadership behavior (construction and empathizing) and organizational cynicism was negative. The ordering of organization cynicism in this study was cognitive, behavioral, and affective. The statistical results depicted that demographic did not affect the association between leaders behavior and organization cynicism. The association between leader behavior and organization cynicism was negative, but teachers perceptions, cognitive, and behavioral level were at highest and in emotional at low.
Mediating role of psychological capital between narcissism personality disorder and organizational cynicism
No doubt, personnel positive behavior at their workplace will improve relationship and thoughts either at group or individual level. It also improve personal capacity to realize their potential and to perform efficiently. Yim et al.  evaluated the mediating role of psychological capital to access the association between occupational stress and nurses turnover intention in South Korea. There was a negative but significant correlation exist between occupational stress and psychological capital. The association between psychological capital and nurse’s turnover intention was also negative. The mediating role of psychological capital was examined through Baron and Kenny method. The outcome depicted that psychological capital played a partial mediating role in the association between occupational stress and nurse’s turnover intention.
In another study, Li et al.  examined the mediating role of psychological capital to access the relationship between occupational stress (extrinsic effort, rewards and over-commitments) and job burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment) of bank employees in China. The mediating role of psychological capital was explored through asymptotic and re-sampling strategies. The statistical results depicted that the mediating role of psychological capital was affected by gender difference. In female bank employees, psychological capital partially mediated the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout, whereas in male bank employees, psychological capital fully mediated the association between occupational stress and job burnout.
Turgut and Agun  examined the association between organizational justice and organizational cynicism with mediating role of psychological capital and employee voice. The findings illustrated that negative and significant association exist between organizational justice and organization cynicism and also with psychological capital. A three-step regression model was applied to measure the mediating role of psychological capital suggested by Baron and Kenny . No mediating role of psychological capital was found in the relationship between organizational justice and organization cynicism. Study of Mohagheghi et al.  examined the association between job demands and job burnout with the mediating role of job resources and psychological capital. The structural equation model and Sobel test were applied to measure the model fit test and mediation. The outcomes revealed significant association exist between job demands and job burnout. The mediating role of psychological capital in the association between job demands and job burnout was confirmed through Sobel test.
Wang et al.  evaluated the mediating role of psychological capital in studying the association between work–family conflict (work interfering family conflict and family interfering work conflict) and burnout (cynicism, professional efficacy and emotional exhaustion) among doctors in China. The mediation role of psychological capital was affected by gender characteristic (male and female). The outcomes depicted that work–family conflicts positively related with burnout. The Sobel test was applied to measure the mediation affect. In male doctors, psychological capital partially mediate the relationship between work interfering family conflict and professional efficacy. In female doctors, psychological capital partially mediate the relationship between family interfering work conflict and cynicism and emotional exhaustion.