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Table 6 Long-and short-run coefficients, and their differential effects.

From: Tripartite relationship between FDI, trade openness and economic growth amidst global economic crisis in Nigeria: application of combined cointegration and augmented ARDL analysis

Variable Spec. 1 Spec 2 Spec 3 Spec 4 Spec 5 Spec 6 Spec 7
Coeff t-statistics Coeff t-statistics Coeff t-statistics Coeff t-statistics Coeff t-statistics Coeff t-statistics Coeff t-statistics
Long run result
C 0.6039 0.0869 1.0158c 1.9403 0.9318 1.3523 − 0.4054 0.0695 2.2584 1.2405 − 0.2037a 4.8473 0.3756 1.1935
ln trade 0.0427b 2.6526      0.2297b 2.7427       
ln export    0.0744 0.5899      0.2036a 3.8262     
ln import    − 0.0341 − 1.0095        0.0525b 3.5868   
ln inflow      0.0026b 2.4638        0.1033b 2.6419
ln k 0.0785a 4.0962 0.0717a 5.541 0.2755 0.733 0.3849a 4.0875 0.3093a 5.9669 0.0825a 5.5088 0.2730b 2.0209
ln l − 0.1154 − 1.9137 − 0.345 − 0.8645 0.7832 0.6958 1.1716 1.0637 − 0.1286 − 0.5208 0.479 1.1552 1.0911 0.8552
ln pcrd 0.001 1.3874 0.0536 1.1072 0.1099 0.9277 0.1034 1.1931 0.0393 1.139 0.0256 1.101 0.1242 0.1685
Crisis − 0.0125b − 2.9216 − 0.0115a − 4.4236 − 0.0528a − 3.691         
ln crisis*trade        − 0.4121b − 2.6753       
ln crisis*export          − 0.1598b − 2.7479     
ln crisis*import            − 0.1331b 2.1535   
ln crisis*inflow              − 0.0138a 3.5268
Short run result
ln (gdp(−1)) 0.4766a 4.2911 0.3265b 2.5564 0.3939a 3.5603 0.4470a 4.2605 0.4164a 4.2219 0.3924b 2.5344 0.3980b 2.0148
ln trade 0.0251b 3.0637      0.0779b 2.0284       
ln (trade(−1)) 0.033b 4.1637      0.0368c 1.9836       
ln (export)    0.0294 0.0382      0.0038b 2.0448     
ln (export(−1)    0.0178c 1.758      0.0069c 1.9263     
ln import    0.0511 0.0142        0.0238b 2.0256   
ln (import(−1))    0.0302c 2.0795        0.0329c 0.3584   
ln fdi      0.0234b 2.6468        0.1137b 2.2611
ln fdi (−1)      0.0278b 2.361        0.0161b 2.0021
ln k − 0.0219b − 3.3217 − 0.1279b − 2.2427 0.076b 2.0735    − 0.0742 − 0.0767 − 0.2676 − 0.0486 − 0.0757 − 0.0742
ln (k(−1)) − 0.0885b − 3.1031 − 0.0587c 2.0664 0.1044a 4.3246    − 0.0722b − 2.9329    0.1050a 3.6576
ln l − 0.0878b − 2.7829 − 0.0397b − 3.3021 − 0.1058b − 2.0084 0.0150b 2.2075 0.0371b 2.6681 0.0658b 2.5701 0.0073b 2.1085
ln (l(−1)) − 0.6730b − 3.3217 − 0.5165b 2.0121 − 0.7741a − 4.4931 − 0.7508a − 4.0163 − 0.6403b − 2.948 − 0.5988c − 1.9514 − 0.7829a 3.3509
ln (pcrd) − 0.0434 − 0.3217 − 0.0315 − 0.0376 − 0.0119 − 0.161 − 0.0513 − 0.0426 − 0.0622c − 1.9655    − 0.0091 − 1.7427
ln (pcrd(−1) 0.0546 0.0394      0.0508 0.6534      0.0089 0.0526
ln crisis*trade − 0.0229b − 2.2429 − 0.0129b − 2.0106 − 0.009 − 0.0122 − 0.0859a − 3.5062       
ln crisis*export          − 0.0285a − 3.3047     
ln crisis*import            − 0.1137b 2.7581   
ln crisis*inflow              −  0.0024a − 4.7962
ecm(− 1) − 0.2143a − 4.8686 − 0.2213a − 11.1038 − 0.1709b − 4.1939 − 0.2084b − 3.7785 − 0.2681a − 4.2681 − 0.2037a − 10.7315 − 0.1769b − 4.0999
Differential effects               
Long run               
Crisis*trade        − 0.1824        
Crisis*export          0.0436      
Crisis*import            − 0.0999    
Crisis*inflow              − 0.0105  
Short run               
Crisis*trade        − 0.0491        
Crisis*export          − 0.0216      
Crisis*import            − 0.0808    
Crisis*inflow              0.0018