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Table 2 Lee and Strazicich [46] LM unit root test with two structural breaks, DF-GLS unit root test and correlation matrix

From: Tripartite relationship between FDI, trade openness and economic growth amidst global economic crisis in Nigeria: application of combined cointegration and augmented ARDL analysis

2A: Lngdp Lntrade lnExport lnimport Inflow lnk Lnl lnPcrd
t-statistics (level) − 4.7325[6] − 6.5572[8]b − 7.3533[6]b − 4.7192[8] − 5.1858[6] − 4.1292[7] 47.367[7]a − 6.7205[2]b
break date 1995, 2009 2002, 2012 2002, 2006 1995, 2007 1995, 2009 1995, 2005 1995, 2011 2005. 2012
First difference
t-statistics − 8.1944[6]b 7.2619[6]b − 8.4183[8]b − 6.9472[0]b − 12.020[8]b − 7.6633[1]b − 51.546[6]a − 7.3408[3]a
break date 1998, 2005 2003, 2012 2001. 2011 1992, 2001 1992, 1996 1992, 1996 1996, 2010 2004, 2009
2B:    DF-GLS test      
t-statistics(level) − 0.5921[4] − 1.9865[0]c 0.1632[1] − 1.5711[0] − 2.1239[0]b − 1.0684[2] − 0.8507[1] − 0.8663[3]
First difference
t-statistics − 3.8868[3]a − 2.4579[7]b − 8.1743[0]a − 4.2155[0]a − 8.7659[0]a − 3.4381[7]a − 5.9637[0]a − 4.8694[2]a
2C: Correlation Matrix
lngdp 1        
lntrade 0.2516 1       
lnExport 0.1533 0.969 1      
lnimport 0.36 0.9314 0.8142 1     
lninflow − 0.0482 0.3415 0.3837 0.2457 1    
lnk 0.7494 − 0.1868 − 0.2579 − 0.072 − 0.3541 1   
lnl − 0.7484 − 0.0319 0.074 − 0.163 0.1854 − 0.4808 1  
  1. a, b and c indicate 1%, 5% and 10% level of significance [] is the maximum lag