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Table 3 Results of the dynamic threshold effect of the environmental degradation on foreign direct investment and poverty reduction (dependent variable: life expectancy)

From: Foreign direct investment and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa: does environmental degradation matter?

  Carbon dioxide emission (CO2) Methane emissions Nitrous oxide emissions
Threshold estimates    
\(\hat{\gamma }\) 0.125 4.278 3.807
Foreign direct investment    
\(\hat{\beta }_{1}\) 0.100*** (0.001) 0.046** (0.025) 0.039* (0.061)
\(\hat{\beta }_{2}\) 0.039** (0.026) 0.130*** (0.001) 0.123*** (0.000)
Control variables    
L. Life expectancy 0.906*** (0.000) 0.882*** (0.000) 0.884*** (0.000)
Inflation − 0.0002 (0.748) − 0.0002 (0.821) − 0.0001 (0.827)
Financial development 0.006** (0.031) 0.006* (0.072) 0.006* (0.056)
Trade openness 0.010*** (0.000) 0.012*** (0.000) 0.012*** (0.000)
Corruption − 0.106 (0.115) − 0.066 (0.351) − 0.081 (0.253)
\(\hat{\delta }_{1}\) 4.605*** (0.000) 5.647*** (0.000) 5.539*** (0.000)
No. of observation 673 617 617
No. of countries 39 39 39
  1. ***, **,*Implies significance at 1%, 5% and 10%, respectively
  2. The probability values are in parentheses