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Table 2 Results of the dynamic threshold effect of the environmental degradation on foreign direct investment and poverty reduction (dependent variable: household final consumption expenditure)

From: Foreign direct investment and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa: does environmental degradation matter?

  Carbon dioxide emission (CO2) Methane emission Nitrous oxide emission
Threshold estimates    
\(\hat{\gamma }\) 1.105 3.720 3.197
Foreign direct investment    
\(\hat{\beta }_{1}\) − 3.145 (0.196) 9.832** (0.038) 13.530 (0.160)
\(\hat{\beta }_{2}\) 36.745*** (0.000) − 2.126(0.498) 0.363 (0.900)
Control variables    
L. Household final consumption expenditure 0.874* (0.072) 0.877***(0.000) 0.881*** (0.000)
Inflation 0.002 (0.859) 0.002(0.829) 0.002 (0.811)
Financial development 3.351*** (0.000) 3.965***(0.000) 3.922*** (0.000)
Trade openness 1.602*** (0000) 1.869***(0.000) 1.912*** (0.000)
Corruption 15.356 (0.145) 11.360(0.322) 11.553 (0.316)
\(\hat{\delta }_{1}\) 61.745* (0.072) 83.380**(0.027) 91.353** (0.015)
No. of observation 503 451 451
No. of countries 39 39 39
  1. ***, **, *Implies significance at 1%, 5% and 10%, respectively
  2. The probability values are in parentheses