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Table 6 Dumitrescu Hurlin panel causality tests (sample: 1995–2015)

From: The relationship between tourism and economic growth among BRICS countries: a panel cointegration analysis

Null hypothesis W-Stat Zbar-Stat P values
EG does not homogeneously cause TR 4.31 5.24 0.00a
TR does not homogeneously cause EG 3.38 3.76 0.00a
EG does not homogeneously cause FD 5.09 6.47 0.00a
FD does not homogeneously cause EG 2.64 2.59 0.00a
FD does not homogeneously cause TR 2.51 2.38 0.01a
TR does not homogeneously cause FD 2.86 2.94 0.00a
  1. Source: Calculated by authors
  2. aSignificance at 1% level