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Table 2 Results of panel unit root tests

From: The relationship between tourism and economic growth among BRICS countries: a panel cointegration analysis

Variable LLC IPS Decision
At level At first difference At level At first difference
lnEG − 0.599 − 5.379b 0.873 2.514b I(1)
lnTR − 3.348b 5.831a I(0)
lnFD − 3.735a − 4.59b I(0)
  1. Source: Authors calculations
  2. aRepresents 1% and bRepresents 5% level of significance and Panel unit root test includes intercept only